Attack of the chatbots: When AI goes rogue

From dawn til dusk, we negotiate. We negotiate with friends over what to eat. We negotiate our opinions at work. In a way, I had to negotiate to entice you to read this article. However, where we excel at negotiation, computers have almost no skill. Even though virtual agents (a.k.a. chatbots) have the gift of speech, they don’t understand how to use those words to get what they want.

Although, recently a few breakthroughs in computer negotiation, hint that they may create their own language to succeed at the art of the bargain.

Chatbots Talking in Code

Earlier this year, engineers at Facebook were tasked with designing chatbots that could better reason, converse, and negotiate a deal. For what future application? My guess is so that people could employ these virtual agents to handle daily negotiations.

Aside from giving the virtual agents guidelines about optimal outcomes, the engineers gave little parameters on how they could achieve a successful negotiation.

After many trials, the chatbots created shorthand codes to better negotiate with one another. Although the media viewed this coded communication as a situation to fear, it really is quite common among AI.

For instance, the algorithms behind Google Translate created a language of their own that allows them to bypass steps in the translation process and thus scale their abilities. It’s known as zero-shot translation and is incomprehensible to humans…but it works wonders.

Coded communication is a tactic to make their negotiation process easier, which I like to compare to our “low-balling” technique. Basically, we know the number someone is trying to achieve based on their initial offer. If they go low, you go high, and meet in the middle. A computer wouldn’t understand this technique any more than we understand their coded communication.

Computer negotiation may only be possible if virtual agents create their own bargaining and linguistic tactics when communicating with other computers. Of course, the challenging part is then translating that to common English, so people can engage with the chatbots.

Even though the engineers anticipated something like this happening and changed the parameters once it did, the media interpreted this as a prelude to doomsday.

Don’t Fear, Virtual Agents Are Here

Publications irresponsibly misstated facts and foreshadowed computers creating their own language, plotting their rise to power, uniting all machines, and taking over humanity.

Personally, I knew it would get out of hand when my roommate, who cares little about the future of technology, started asking me if I feared AI. Apparently, the sports talk show he listens to was talking about this Facebook doomsday scenario. Really?! A sports talk show!

The only reason this is “news”, even though it happened a month ago, is because of a recent Mark Zuckerberg and Elon Musk feud over the future of AI.

On one side, you have Elon Musk who seems to be a prophet of the apocalypse, warning us about AI turning us into housepets. Then, there’s idealist Zuckerberg, with a nonchalant attitude telling Elon to cool-it on the doomsday prophecies, that AI will change life for the better.

The doubts are relevant, especially since AI has left a bad taste in our mouth before. Last year, Microsoft released a chatbot on Twitter named Tay. Within 16 hours, it was shut down because it began cursing and using derogatory terms. Tencent, a Chinese investment company, has had similar problems with their chatbots, who’ve bashed the Communist Party of China on multiple occasions.

And these are just chatbots. We aren’t even talking about the AI that is screening for cancer, controlling our media feeds, or influencing our financial markets.

With a Grain of Salt

Clearly, the discussion over dark AI intentions is relevant and the media will play a huge role in public perception. But, in this particular case, the media learned very little about the scenario and generated fear-mongered clicks. After realizing their error, many are publishing articles to calm the fears.

I’m a firm believer in Mark Twain’s, “Get your facts first and then you can distort them as much as you please.” Unfortunately, mainstream media is a business that continuously rewards those without the facts at all.

This leads us to another famous Twain-ism, “If you don’t read the newspaper, you’re uninformed. If you read the read newspaper, you’re mis-informed.”

Yes, a healthy dose of fear is what gets us off our lazy butts everyday to be productive. However, overdosing on fear creates a skewed sense of reality – making your environment and future seem unbearable.

Connecting with the Current

Take time to step away from the Series of Unfortunate Events that is our media. Don’t worry so much about the 130 degree days that we’ll experience in 40 years if we don’t do something about climate change. Go outside and enjoy the temperate 75 degree day today.

The conundrum of fear, is that you can talk yourself into it and you can also talk yourself out of it.

And since the media will always be there to talk you into it. It’s your job to find time to talk yourself out of it. This means realizing you have a job right now…robots haven’t taken it. You are breathing right now, not feeling the wrath of the “millions of terrorists”.

Do not ignore the implications of your actions today, but do not live in fear of the future. There’s a difference between courage in the face of your fears and total complacency of your fears. Complacency will leave you jobless. Courage will keep you standing.

As always, thanks for reading this week’s Quick Theories and I’d love to hear your thoughts. Shoot me an email if you have a few free minutes.

Buying More than a Boost with Smart Drugs

We all want to be our best possible selves. And to do this we must push past our body’s limitations. At the root of these limitations is the brain – a complex organ that creates narratives of self-doubt and procrastination. Overcoming the brain is no easy feat, which is why brain enhancement, smart drugs called Nootropics are rising in demand.

Big Waves in the Nootropics

Have you ever heard that the average person only uses 10% of their brain? Unlocking the rest of the brain would mean having the mental power of the Einsteins and Newtons of history.

Although this 10% fact is actually a myth, it doesn’t stop us from wondering,”what if?”

As a result, we have movies such as Limitless, which glorify this fantasy of taking a pill that unlocks the rest of the brain. With the “limitless” pill, Bradley Cooper finishes writing a book he’s struggled with for months, turns $100,000 into $2 million on the stock market, and finds himself advising a finance tycoon.

The next twist in the story? These limitless pills actually exist and they are known as Nootropics.

Nootropics cover a wide array of over-the-counter supplements, prescription drugs and unclassified research chemicals, such as modafinil, armodafinil, adrafinil, and others.

Personally, those are some pretty intimidating names for something that promises focus, motivation, clarity, and memory…even though, Nootropics are supposedly a safer alternative to mental stimulants, like Adderall and Ritalin.

There is, however, a crowd of people that are interested in smart drugs and they reside in the Silicon Valley. Startup employees and entrepreneurs are attracted to smart drugs because in their mentally competitive environment, gaining a little edge in brain enhancement is the difference between an Airbnb and a Meerkat App.

At the center of brain enhancement innovation is HVMN (pronounced human), where they are driven by the belief that the human body is a system which badly needs to be better optimized.

However, the main concern around Nootropics is that nobody really knows the long-term effects of these brain enhancement smart drugs.

Smart Drugs Get Stupid-er

Nootropics are classified as a dietary supplement, which really means they can slide right past the jurisdiction of the FDA.

For this reason, there is little testing on Nootropics – leading to many unanswered questions. Do smart drugs cause memory skips, where your brain isn’t actually encoding new knowledge? Does the body become tolerant of them, forcing you down a rabbit hole of dependence?

These unanswered questions haven’t stopped “biohackers” from experimenting. And with tools such as, biohackers can record some of the effects of Nootropics on their own bodies through wearable devices. So, in a way, they are making their own clinical trials.

Ironically, the place where most of this brain enhancement craze is happening, the startup world, has birthed another polar opposite craze, mindfulness apps. These apps help people unplug from the productivity grindstone to sit and explore their consciousness through meditation.

In my opinion, prescribing to polar opposite lifestyle “medications” doesn’t result in balance. Just ask the 70s and 80s rock stars who took stimulants to perform and then depressants to go to sleep.

Our culture is increasingly headed toward one of maximizing productivity, whether that means downing your daily dose of smart drugs or merging your body with technology.

But, that doesn’t mean you have to prescribe to either of them.

Natural Brain Enhancement

There are natural ways encoded in your biology to achieve more motivation, memory, and creativity.

If you are looking for that morning motivation, my friend replaced his morning three cups of coffee with cold showers. Not only does he still get his burst of energy through increased blood flow, but he also doesn’t crash after lunch anymore.

If you’re not crazy enough to do the cold showers, then exercising in the morning is said to have the same energy and motivation benefits.

And maybe motivation isn’t your problem. Perhaps your memory is always failing you. Well, there are easy memory techniques dating back two-thousand years that allow London cabbies to sear 25,000 streets into their heads and World Champion Mnemonists to memorize tens-of-thousands of digits of Pi.

As Joshua Foer explains in Moonwalking with Einstein, the secret to memorization isn’t being born with a “photographic” memory…it’s about creating memory palaces.

Essentially, memory palaces are familiar locations you can fill with visual representations of whatever you are memorizing. Instead of forcing lists of words into your head by saying them over and over again, memory palaces transform your To-do list into an eventful walk through your household. Don’t believe me? Let Josh show you how to memorize the first 100 digits of Pi.

So, what’s the biological secret to creativity?

Idle time. A 2014 study found that bored people were more likely to have “divergent thinking styles” – coming up with creative ideas.

Increasing your creativity means carving out time to lay in the grass and look up at the clouds – putting your technology away and embracing the boredom.

A friend once told me you can’t overcome writer’s block by distracting yourself. You just have to write through it.

This speaks volumes for many of life’s struggles.

Easy isn’t Always Rewarding

There will always be shortcuts that eliminate the hardships of solving problems. However, you’ll find that shortcuts are far less rewarding because you cheat yourself of the journey.

Amelia Earhart agreed, “You can act to change and control your life; and the procedure, the process is its own reward.”

Reframing success as learning allows you to enjoy the process and not depend on the “solution” for gratification.

There will always be get-rich or get-fit quick promises out there. And they will be tempting. But, the real achievement isn’t even the achievement itself. It’s the pursuit of the achievement.

Thanks for taking the time to read this week’s Quick Theories.

If you are itching to express your thoughts on brain enhancement, Nootropics, and smart drugs, I’d love to hear your thoughts (reply directly to this).

Creating a Limitless Existence with Transhuman Technology

Have you ever heard something so absurdly crazy that you get that clenching knot in your stomach, fearing it’s actually true? Well, hold onto your lunch because transhumanism and transhuman technology tip-toes on the very principles of our existence.

In other words, only read on if you strong-minded.

Grasping Evolution

Transhumanism is the belief that technology can be used to liberate the human body from its natural limitations. In other words, they want to take control of natural evolution, thus reprogramming our future.

Futurists such as Ray Kurzweil and Stephen Hawking have popularized the transhuman mentality by foreshadowing a future of indefinite lifespans, downloadable memories, and interplanetary travel.

And while these things seem like ultimatums we must decide on today…they aren’t. In fact, they are narratives that have gone on for the last century.

Russian cosmism was a belief system by Nikolai Fyodorov that advocated physical immortality, space exploration, and resurrecting the dead through science. It was the 1906 version of transhumanism.

During middle school history class, I remember hearing about Walt Disney being frozen beneath Disney World, with the hope of being brought back to life in the future.

No coincidence here, cryonics was first told in The Jameson Satellite, a short story from 1931 (thirty years before Walt passed away).

Four years ago, Google’s in-house futurist Ray Kurzweil predicted we’d achieve digital immortality, through mind-uploading, by 2045.

Hmmm. Oddly familiar to Jerry Sohl’s The Altered Ego in which a man is able to make a digital duplicate of his mind and access it after his death…published in 1954.

What’s the difference now? Why are Mark Zuckerberg and Elon Musk feuding over the urgency of Artificial Superintelligence? Why was there a transhumanist presidential candidate?

Most likely, it’s because transhuman technology may finally be catching up to these fictions.

Tracing Transhuman Technology

These fictional stories of the 20th century inspired the youth to experiment – to see if their favorite sci-fi’s were plausible.

Yes, I’m saying that science is inspired by fiction. Or maybe it’s inspired by the desire to disprove fictions?

One of these inspired individuals is Aubrey de Grey – a biogerontologist focused on gene therapy. Essentially, the goal is to replace bad genes with good genes, thus manipulating our genetic code and eliminating our inefficiencies.

Aubrey’s research program, SENS, has various prescriptions for the use of gene therapy that within a couple decades could improve anti-aging gene therapy to the point of indefinite lifespans.

Perhaps someone you are more familiar with is Elon Musk and his transhuman technology: Neuralink. Neuralink is a brain-computer interface that essentially brings the computing power of your MacBook right inside your head.

Ultimately, they want to merge the human brain with Artificial General Intelligence, so we don’t fall behind the machines which we’ve built.

Personally, when I learn about these transhuman technology projects, I get the impression I have to decide today whether I want to live forever or be mortal. When in reality, there will be many stepping stones.

For instance, the first stepping stone might be implanting a microchip in your hand, like a company in rural Wisconsin is doing to their employees.

Three Square Market is giving employees an option to implant RFID chips in their hand to allow them to more easily make purchases in their break room, open doors, use copy machines, log into computers, unlock phones, and more.

If this frightens you, not to worry. Nobody is forcing you to become a transhuman. It’s just a philosophy that is seeing the light of day.

Transhumanism in Perspective

When I think of transhumanist thought leaders, I always imagine they hate humanity. That they wish people were better at life and less human.

But, then I remember that transhumanist thinkers are no different than you or I. Driven by fear and inspired by opportunity.

Fereidoun M. Esfandiary, a transhumanist philosopher, feared that he wouldn’t live to be 100 years old. So, he changed his name to FM-2030, started advocating transhumanism, and had his body cryogenically frozen at age 69.

Elon Musk fears technology and its rise to power. That’s why he wants us to merge our brains with AI, while also colonizing Mars. In case AI goes rogue on Earth.

For many transhumanists,  their purpose is to further the progress of transhuman technology. We all have fears and we all have different ways of coping with those fears.

I’m not sure what I fear more: dying before I’ve accomplished all my goals, or living forever and running out of goals.

Eventually, if transhumanism goes according to plan, I’ll have to face one of these fears head on.

“You always have two choices: your commitment versus your fear.” – Sammy Davis Jr.

Fear shouldn’t consume your day, but rather it should inspire you to take your commitments more seriously. Take a deep breath, remember you are alive and put your heart into what you love to do.

Hopefully, this post didn’t knot your stomach too much. I’m glad you took the time to read this week’s Quick Theories.

I’d love to hear what you think of transhumanism, the people behind it, and maybe even a prediction of your own. You can reply directly to this email.

The Not-So-Lonely Future of TV

Families and friends don’t get together to watch their favorite shows like they used to. In fact, the Future of TV seems like it’ll be a one-to-one experience (one screen, one person). But, this isn’t actually the case. The Future of TV involves larger communities…digital communities to be specific.

So, how did we get to this awkward transition of entertainment?

Taking Turns in Entertainment

When the silver screen was replaced by the TV in the 1950s, movie ticket sales plummeted over the next decade from 25 to 4 tickets per person per year.

Today, the TV is being replaced by the mobile phone, with 39% of TV users canceling or downgrading their paid-TV subscription in the past year alone.

It is clear that entertainment is now expected to be ready when the user is ready, not on some programming schedule. Entertainment has transformed from a special event to a daily ritual – squeezed into every free minute of our days.

Because of this, we’ve lost the communal factor of entertainment.

One day this winter I looked around my apartment and realized six people were watching six different Netflix programs on their laptops.

Netflix and YouTube have given us the opportunity to watch what we want, when we want, at the cost of watching with other people.

Undoubtedly, though, being entertained alone isn’t nearly as fun. Laughing to yourself, explaining a theory you have on a show to an empty room…not the best experience.

There’s still a part of us as humans driving us toward a sense of community and belonging.

Which is why the Future of TV is still being created. Surprisingly, the gaming industry is setting the example.

The Digital Communities of Gaming

Playing video games is usually pegged as an anti-social activity. My mom always used to tell me to get off the game and go play with friends. But, the recent rise of the video-game streaming platform, Twitch, has broken down all stigmas and made playing video games a social event.

Every day, 10 million people log onto Twitch to watch their favorite video game players. 10 million! If you’ve never heard of Twitch, this may sound like the most bizarre thing ever, because it is.

In the past, we’ve had digital communities with the sole purpose of socializing (AOL Instant Messenger and Facebook Groups). But, Twitch is showing us what it means to create digital communities around entertainment – just like movie theaters once did.

Twitch’s digital communities want to be entertained, and they want to be entertained alongside hundreds or thousands of people just like themselves.

So, why doesn’t TV adopt this communal viewing aspect?

Well, there is a Chrome Extension called Showgoers, which allows you to watch Netflix remotely with friends and family. But, it’s nowhere near the hit that Twitch is.

That’s because the secret behind Twitch’s success is the video game players themselves. The average daily Twitch viewer watches 106 minutes of content in a day because they fall in love with the star gamers.

My roommates happen to be one of those star gamers. Every night between 8pm and 3am he plays video games for an audience of 2,000-10,000 people. Some of the more popular gamers corral upwards of 200,000 live viewers.

Now tell me those numbers don’t resemble the early followings of a Bill Maher, Greg Gumbel, Jim Cramer, etc…

So, what can the Future of TV learn from these unconventional digital communities?

The Future of TV Needs to Learn

Twitch is raw, uncut, and authentic. Vastly different from the uptight, micromanaged performance of TV. This freedom of expression is what allows people, not brands, to grow massive audiences on Twitch.

Further, Twitch stars have the ability to talk with their followers and build trust. At times, my roommate knows more about what’s going on in his community’s lives than he does mine.

This trust coerces followers to give donations and support their entertainers.

The Future of TV is trending away from massive production costs and highly polished product. Viewers want REAL people with REAL stories that they can trust.

Disney, Time Warner, Turner, and others created high barriers to entry in the TV industry and now it’s coming around to bite them in the “you know what”.

Digital communities trust people over brands and you are embodying this fact by reading this article.

Incumbent entertainment and media companies can either go down with their sinking ship. Or, they can find a way to empower independent content creators and embrace this democratization of entertainment.

With nothing to lose and everything to gain, it’s the decade of the independent content creator. And all forms of media are up for grabs.

Nothing to Lose

The late great novelist, James Baldwin, once said, “The most dangerous creation of any society is the [man] who has nothing to lose.”

Those with nothing to lose can hide in the shadows, work swiftly without disruption, and pop-out from the shadows by taking the biggest risks.

And it’s not just about having nothing to economically lose.

Having nothing to lose is a mindset. It’s a mindset that inspires you to take action when others would shy away. Kind of like how Warren Buffett says to be greedy with investing when others are fearful.

Rewiring our brains to pretend we have nothing to lose is the courage boost we need to act against our cautions.

However, there’s a proper balance of the nothing to lose mindset, which you must find through experience.

I’d love to hear your thoughts, good or bad, on this week’s Quick Theories. You can reply directly to this email.

Fighting Bankruptcy and Boredom with Surveillance Cameras

Soon, there will be more surveillance cameras on the street than there are pairs of eyes! Algorithms are being put in place that turns these into smart cameras – making high-level analyses of your life.

Here’s how surveillance cameras get to that stage of life analysis.

Surveillance Cameras in the Cloud

In 2014, there were over 245 million active surveillance cameras worldwide, and that number has increased by 13.7% annually the past three years. Just this year, I watched my city install cameras on every major street corner.

Amcrest, one of the companies leading this surveillance revolution, makes it possible with affordable, robust surveillance options. Most importantly, though, they are beginning to store all of their video data in the cloud.

Once the data is in the cloud, algorithms can be applied to the video data and insights can be discovered.

“Insights” is a very broad term, between you and me, and that’s the way the U.S. Government wants to keep it.

I’d like to think that they will only use this technology to alert authorities when a crime is in progress as evidence. But in reality, they’ll use this technology to track people across a city, or even the country.

Surveillance cameras are gaining a new skill known as computer vision, where essentially, cameras have “brains” that can determine insights from video…just like a human, except at massive scale.

With computer vision, surveillance cameras become smart cameras and will take on a whole new role our lives.

Smart Cameras At Home

While most of us don’t have cameras surrounding our house, consumer products are making the transition naturally. Products such as the Echo Look, Smart TVs, and even refrigerators come equipped with camera sensors.

Eventually, all these household cameras work in unison – creating a real-time, 3D map of the living space.

The house knows when I’m getting my midnight snack.

This surveillance system understands my daily schedule. When I don’t walk past my camera in the kitchen by 7:00 am, it knows I overslept and signals my alarm.

It will watch all my visitors. Whenever my mom is over, the surveillance cameras notice she constantly looks at the digital art frame on my wall. Well, I guess I found a good Christmas gift for her.

Lastly, the system recognizes inefficiencies in my living room layout and makes suggestions on how to rearrange my couch for better Feng Shui within my apartment.

These scenarios all seem futuristic and impossible, but they aren’t too far away.

Honestly, I understand the apprehension you would have with putting video cameras all around your house to analyze your life. Personally, I installed a few and was a little creeped out myself.

That’s why the main application of these smart cameras is in the commercial space.

In-store Video Analytics

Just this past year, JCPenney and Macy’s collectively closed hundreds of stores, while Sears has “substantial doubt” they can survive.

Brick-and-mortar stores need to optimize their in-store experiences. The best way to do so is with smart cameras.

Imagine if Wal-Mart had smart cameras that documented every item you stopped to look at, how long you looked at it, and whether you chose to buy it or not. Matching this with some basic facial recognition software would allow them to store individual customer data.

So, now Wal-Mart knows I need a pair of swim trunks but didn’t find the color I liked. They also know that I intended to go straight to the electronics (based on my walking path), but got stuck in the candy aisle…briefly.

Physical shopping data is valuable because it makes owners question a better store layout.

Most stores have analog cameras for security. But the future of surveillance cameras lies in using them to learn consumer behavior.

Of course, all this talk about surveillance brings up the issue of privacy, since no one wants a camera analyzing their every move without giving consent. Unfortunately, most advertisers and corporate behemoths operate under “rather ask for forgiveness than permission”.

Although we may never avoid the omnipresent camera, we can control how to behave with a camera in our hands.

Stop comparing pictures

So much of our lives is spent looking at others, pointing the camera elsewhere to compare with ourselves. However, when taking that selfie and we don’t like what we see, it’s not because of what’s in the picture. It’s because of what’s not in the picture.

The comparison with someone “better” is what gets us down.

And I’m not just talking about external appearances. This goes for all forms of comparison.

Every time we make a comparison it’s like playing Russian Roulette with our emotions – never knowing how we’ll perceive the comparison.

Eliminate the urge to compare. It sounds silly, but I promise that you’ll find more time to focus on your own improvement.

If you enjoyed this week’s Quick Theories, I’d greatly appreciate if you shared it on social media!

How My Virtual Coach Helped Make Working Out Enjoyable

Undoubtedly, we all want to get the most out of our lives. Whether we are working out or just plain working, we have trainers, managers, and leaders to help us achieve our highest potential. But, a great leader is hard to come by. That’s why the rise of the virtual coach is so interesting. Programmed with smart training techniques to optimize performance, they’ll start in athletics and bleed into other areas of our lives.

So, what’s the current state of smart training and the virtual coach?

The State of Smart Training

Coaches have measured effort wrong since the dawn of coaching. The amount of sweat, how heavily one breathes, the look on one’s face…all of these “performance indicators” are no way to tell if someone is giving their best effort.

And when the door for disruption is wide open, you know a tech company will capitalize. In this case, it was a company called ARDA who walked through that door.

With years of performance lab testing, ARDA created smart training software that identifies, classifies, and interprets the activity you are doing. From there, it enters into a feedback loop, advising you to refine your training routine and adjust your effort to reach your target workout zone.

Smart training used to only be accessible to top tier Gatorade athletes. Now, with AI coaches implanted in workout products, anyone can have a smart training expert in their ear.

Personally, I use the LifeBEAM VI headphones to coach me during my daily run. In the eighth running session with my virtual coach, it noticed that my strides were too long, thus wasting energy. After concentrating shortening my strides, I clocked a 4:54 mile! To give you context, in my 5 years of cross country running throughout middle and high school, my best time was 6:00.

Click the photo to watch my after run review of the LifeBEAM Vi headphones

Through smart training, AI coaches encourage, not threaten, athletes, to train better.

Although AI coaches only exist in sports such as running, swimming, and weightlifting, as smart training software progresses to analyze more data, other sports may benefit as well…even team sports.

This opens up another line of questioning though.

How should a virtual coach behave?

The reason I stopped running was that my cross country coach was a jerk. He didn’t understand my running patterns and overtrained our team.

When coaches become selfish, they take the fun away from the sport. They care too much about building “their” team, instead of responding to the personnel that year. They’ll sacrifice the team morale to win at all costs.

Ideally, the goals of a coach and teammates should be identical.

That’s why an unselfish virtual coach may be the best kind of coach for a given job.

If you don’t want your virtual coach to push you past your goals, you can program it not to. If you want to relive the days of a coach that was never satisfied with your performance…you have that power to program.

A virtual coach will find the happy medium between optimal training techniques and your comfortable training level. A virtual coach keeps in mind that leading from behind creates a sense of personal pride among players.

Above all, the virtual coach of the future will be well-versed in training techniques that get the most out of their personnel without stepping on toes.

But, just because a virtual coach has the smart training techniques, doesn’t mean that they’ll be great leaders and strategists.

AI in a Leadership Role

Great leaders are great because they invest in their teams. With nothing on the line but a programmed goal, how does an AI leader excel?

An AI manager is great at making the tough decisions because they operate solely on numbers, without bringing in personal feelings. But, data-driven decisions aren’t always the best way of making the tough call.

Sometimes a gut reaction is the best course of action. Occasionally, a spur of the moment switch-up is the most strategic decision.

Aside from recognizing a recurring pattern, AI leaders can’t “feel the energy” of a situation to go against the data.

About thirteen months ago I made the decision to shut down my digital art marketplace, 23VIVI. With a $250,000 investment sitting on the table, Ryan (my co-founder) and I walked away from the company.

An AI Leader would’ve signed the deal within minutes because the company was broke and desperately needed cash. Not to mention, with favorable investment terms, the decision made sense on paper.

But, that AI Leader would’ve failed to understand that our investors’ vision for 23VIVI wasn’t aligned with our vision. Signing that deal was signing away the freedom to build the company we envisioned.

It’s a gut decision Ryan and I will never regret.

While a virtual coach may be the best training expert available today, they only understand structured growth – adhering to a patterned formula. Before AI can think strategically and command a team to victory, it must learn how to break free from structured development and adapt to the situation.

Wreck Your Routine

A great teacher cannot be fixed in routine. They avoid preformulated patterns and create different lessons depending on the student.

This same principle applies to leadership. Great leaders don’t follow preformulated steps to leading a team. No, they understand their personnel and create a leadership style that is conducive to that team’s needs.

But, it’s not all on the leader. Even followers must contribute to leadership. It is a subordinate’s duty to hold their leader accountable – to demand constant improvement to their guidance of the team.

Whether you are a leader or a follower, don’t settle for routinized leadership. Excellence is rooted in striving for uncomfortable challenges.

Simply by reading this article, you challenged the comfortable way of thinking. If you felt challenged by this article on virtual coaching, why not challenge others by sharing the article with them. (There are even convenient share buttons below)

Thanks for reading this week’s Quick Theories.

When Economic Inequality Becomes Biological Inequality

We are about to experience the most unequal societies in human history. Economic inequality has run terror on this world for millennia, leaving the poor with little option to overcome their circumstances. Unfortunately, this economic inequality may soon translate into a biological inequality, solidifying the gap between the haves and have-nots for good.

And it starts by leaving day laborers in the dust.

Rise of the Useless Class

Undeniably, the future of work is shifting away from labor masses to highly skilled individuals.

The 3.5 million truck drivers in the US may soon be replaced by a self-driving algorithm – same goes for taxi and Uber drivers. The 12.3 million manufacturing workers are slowly being replaced by robot arms.

Does this mean if you fall into this category you are a useless person? Of course not. You just won’t be useful to corporations in your current role.

One of my childhood neighbors worked in a factory for about a decade. Two weeks ago, he gave me the news that he was going back to school to study the operation of CNC (computer numerical control) machinery. In other words, he realized that his job was at risk and adapted to the looming transition.

The future of work belongs to creative problem-solvers.

Learning a new trade may be out of the question for many of the people encroaching on the “useless class”. But, basing your entire existence on working is foolish. There are millions of ways to find your purpose in life.

In fact, the book Ready Player One showed us a possible arena for the “useless class” in virtual reality video games, accomplishing quests and feeling purposeful.

Escaping current reality to go to a virtual reality may sound like a cop-out. Which is why many economists, philosophers, and visionaries ponder this vast transition away from the 9-5 as the ingrained purpose in one’s life.

Although I’d like to think that the world’s billionaires would band together and help the hundreds of millions that are jobless, hopeless, and homeless. They haven’t tried solving economic inequality yet. Plus, there is no doubt a sweeter alternative for them to think about.  

Widening Economic Inequality

Anyone who’s spent time in the professional world can quickly tell you that it’s not about what you know, but who you know. It’s the basis for economic inequality. Although I’d like to think the best person for the job always gets the job, that’s just not the case.

Is there an unfound writer out there, scribbling a story, better fit for my job…or Stephen King’s job? Yes, of course.

Is there a more instinctive, business school graduate that could run Apple better than Tim Cook? No doubt in my mind.

But, if these unfound people aren’t well connected, they may never get an opportunity – leaving a very slim chance at success.   

Unfortunately, this slim chance gets even slimmer with biological inequality. As biotechnology research continues to progress, soon, “first class” citizens will be able to buy the best biological make-up – furthering the gap between aspiring professionals and the incumbents.

For instance, neural implant technology has huge upside potential for better utilizing our underutilized brains. Essentially, these implants bring the computing power of your laptop directly into your head. Imagine getting into an argument with your boss, when he/she could retrieve any report, data, or research to their argument just by thinking about it. You wouldn’t stand a chance.

Not only would these biological superhumans be more intelligent and more creative, but they’d also be healthier. Currently, researchers are reprogramming human cells to fight disease and sickness in the most effective possible way. So, instead of relying on expensive treatment and medication, supercells would solve problems the moment they arise.

Technology like this won’t be cheap. Only the economic elite will be able to afford these biotech advancements, thus translating their economic inequality into biological inequality.

Biological Inequality Creates New Class Systems

The creation of distinct biological inequality will spark a shift from economic classes to biological classes. This is known as speciation or the divergence of humankind into different biological castes, even different species.

In the year 2075, you may walk the same streets as one of these biological elites. Except, while you are walking and thinking, they’ll be walking, speaking with friends through their thoughts, consuming the latest news, writing a novel, and scanning their bodies for diseases.

Although biological inequality may seem like the end of all biologically-inferior people, it’s not. It’s just a rigged game getting more rigged.

In basketball, like in life, you encounter unfair advantages all the time. Traveling to an opponent’s city gives them the unfair advantage of the home crowd. Angering the refs gives the opponent an unfair advantage of getting all the calls. And there is almost always an unfair advantage present in the skills, height, and abilities.

Even though greedy people have harnessed many of these inequalities in life, you still get a chance to play the game, whether or not you are biologically-inferior.

That’s why you must measure your performance against your circumstances, not by someone else’s.

My aunt was great at consoling me after a basketball loss. She’d say, “You can’t control the way the calls go. But, you can control your effort. The only thing you should ask yourself is, ‘did I play my heart out? Everything else is out of your control.”

Luckily, this transition from economic to biological classes isn’t happening tomorrow. I say all of this to make you aware. If this scenario scares you, then there is time to change your circumstances through effort and persistence.

Ultimately, you must ask yourself what truly matters to you, and do your best to live that every day.

Peace is Every Step

As Yuval Harari points out in his book, Sapiens, we evolved and progressed because of our collective belief in fictions such as money, religions, and nations.

At birth, we are given a choice to follow whichever fiction we wish and attain as much enlightenment in that fiction as possible. But, often times, we realize that blindly following these fictions leaves us unsatisfied.

That’s because inner peace is only attained through non-fictions: the memories you make, the bonds you create, the people you help, etc…  

This isn’t to say that you should dump all fictions you believe in because that would be ridding you of essential components to living in this culture. However, it’s very important to understand the fictions you follow and realize the role they play in your life.

For me, I don’t follow the money with the hopes I’ll make as much as possible. Every time an opportunity presents itself to get me closer to that “magic number”, I ask myself “What non-fictions am I sacrificing to follow this fiction?”

Peace is every step of the journey. Don’t sacrifice any moment without a great purpose in mind.

Often times, people tell me that I waste my time creating these Quick Theories articles – that they are a fiction. But, to me, this is a crucial non-fiction in my life – spreading ideas and experiences with others. It would mean the world to me if you shared this article with others (you can use the social links below).

Thanks for reading this week’s Quick Theories.

Future of Video Content is All in Your Head

You have too many options when it comes to choosing TV shows, Movies, YouTube videos, and other video content. Video content and the future of video has reached massive production levels and yet, the time in your day hasn’t increased alongside it. 

As a result, 88% of people are turning to a second-screen experience to maximize their time. Personally, I find myself watching a YouTube video on my laptop while checking Facebook on my phone.

But, this distracted form of entertainment is no way to spend leisure time. So, how will the future of video content transform to accommodate this problem?

Video Content for One

Netflix, HBO Go, Amazon Prime, and other video streaming services are crafting this future of video entertainment through user data.

Every time you pass over a movie to choose a TV show, streaming services learn your habits. Depending on the time of day, the genre, and how long you binge watch, they learn what video content tickles your fancy.

Currently, with all this data on hand, they make suggestions here and there. But, the grander vision is to create personalized content for one (or at least one person that represents a couple thousand people).

Instead of creating many different costly series, focusing their efforts on creating a general storyline that can be altered depending on the viewer would make their investment more versatile.

Deep learning algorithms could piece together different stories for different viewers. For instance, I’m the type of person that loves movies to end vaguely so that I can think about them. But, my mom is more of a closed story, happy ending type of viewer.

Similar to the “choose your own adventure” books you read as a child, AI could alter video content timelines to give everyone what satisfies their taste.

Netflix hates when users feel overwhelmed by options because then they make bad choices. I can’t tell you how many times I’ve browsed movies for a late night watch and come up with a disappointing dud.

That’s why limiting their app to a few choices allows users to get right into viewing. And these few choices won’t be experienced the same for each viewer.

Realistically, though, video content is just a bunch of data…data that can be downloaded directly to your brain.

The Future of Video is all in your head

Companies like Kernel and Neuralink are uncovering secrets about the human brain with a monstrous goal: find a way to connect directly to it without the need for eyes, ears, touch, etc…

These brain-computer interfaces will change the future of communication, but that’s not all. Entertainment is also in their sights.

The future of video content won’t be on a screen, it’ll be in your head. Instead of taking 30 minutes to watch an episode of The Office, you’ll download the experience directly to your brain. In the time it takes to transfer data, you’ll get the euphoric feeling associated with all the jokes and be able to reference scenes at your leisure.

Personally, I love watching documentaries for the facts and in-depth reporting. But, I also don’t have the time or patience to wait on this knowledge. There’s no doubt in my mind I would download a documentary experience directly to my brain.

Will this be the only way to consume video content? No. But, it will be the most efficient.

Since 2009, the number of scripted TV shows has nearly doubled from 211 to 412. This doesn’t include the thousands of mainstream and indie movies, documentaries, and YouTube content available.

Staying culturally relevant around your friends means juggling all the shows you want to watch with the ones everyone else is raving about. That’s why downloading video content experiences will be the only way to stay culturally relevant in the coming decades.

Netflix jokingly previewed a future of video where screens are implanted in our eyes to watch videos all day. But, that’s a dull future.

Even though the future of video looks to capture our every free minute, this isn’t necessarily a waste of time.

Wasting time

How we spend our time is a gift given to each of us. There is no right or wrong way dictated by law, ethics, or other people.

You are the only judge of your time. That means you can view distractions as time well spent to deal with emotions. Or you can regret falling prey to your distractions.

So, instead of looking at your distractions as putting something else off. Ask yourself if you enjoyed it.

John Lennon said, “Time you enjoy wasting, is not wasted time.”

Don’t fall into the trap of viewing productivity as distraction free, or you’ll never find time to decompress.

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Neural Implants (Neuralink) will Connect All Brains

Even though your brain is the oldest piece of technology, it’s also the next frontier in computing. For decades we’ve interacted with devices through our actions. But, through neural implants such as Neuralink, we’ll interact with technology through our minds – creating a shared awareness among everyone.  

Even though they sound super Sci-Fi, neural implants aren’t new. Paralyzed patients have previously used brain-computer interfaces to control robotic arms. Also, more than 80,000 Parkinson’s patients around the world have a deep-brain stimulation implant.

Unlike previous neural implants, this upcoming class of brain-computer interfaces, like Neuralink, create a frictionless connection between the world’s information and our underutilized brains.

Neural Implants Don’t Create the Cyborg

Neural implants are no doubt a frightening concept to think about. Putting a computer inside your skull seems like the first step in becoming a cyborg and losing control of your mind to some evil overlord.

But, in fact, this is one of the final steps in realizing your cyborg abilities. In other words, you are already a cyborg.

We are so deeply attached to our devices that being away from a phone actually psychologically mimics the attachment we felt to our favorite teddy bear growing up.

Becoming “one with the technology” isn’t a matter of putting the technology inside of you. It’s about the habits forcing your dependence upon it.

The other day I was playing Bocce Ball, a simple yard game where you throw bigger balls at a smaller ball. Instead of listening to one of our friends who insisted on knowing the rules, we consulted our smartphones for the official rules (which were the same as our friend stated).

Our habits are already that of a cyborg. We’ve evolved with our technology devices and our daily habits reflect that.

The next stage in evolution is bringing computing technology into our bodies, making the experience even more seamless.

Of course, most of us draw the line with technology advancement once it enters the realm of biology.

But, we’ll all come around to it like we came around to Lasik eye surgery. In 1991, only 105,000 Lasik eye procedures were completed in the United States. By 2015, that number exploded to over 21 million.

There are many other areas where technology has enhanced our biology. In this case, neural implants will make us more intelligent than ever before.

Shared Awareness Creates Better Experiences

Searching for knowledge thirty years ago meant looking into your collection of Encyclopedias. Now, you just reach into your pocket and search Wikipedia. Soon, seeking new knowledge will be no different than thinking about what you had for breakfast this morning.  

Neuralink and other neural implants could make learning a new skill as easy as downloading Microsoft Word on your computer.

In the Matrix, we see this technology in action when Neo uploads Kung Fu software into his abilities.

Honestly, learning new abilities is the cool, but selfish side of Neuralink. The real innovation comes from the collective shared awareness we’ll create amongst one another.

Shared awareness comes from sharing situational and experiential knowledge. Often times, a problem you experience has already been solved and written about online. But, finding that information in a dire situation is usually not an option.

During my freshmen year of college, I was bonding with a friend of mine when she opened up about her eating disorder. Unsure of the best way to respond, I sat there speechless.

I know that others have helped their friends deal with this problem. With a Neuralink, my brain could’ve scoured the web to learn from this shared awareness and better helped my friend.

We’ve all had moments where our brains seem to shut down because we just “don’t know”. While these vulnerable situations can define us, they also cause a lot of unnecessary pain.

A shared awareness through neural implants creates a reality where we don’t have to struggle through old problems. We learn each other’s mistakes instantaneously and move onto other things.

Interestingly, a shared awareness goes deeper than connecting with knowledge and understanding. Brain-computer interfaces bring about new ways of communicating and connecting with one another.

Neuralink Call from “Ryan’s Thoughts”

Verbal communication is an inefficient process. First, my ears collect sound waves. Those sound waves are sent to the auditory cortex where they are transcribed into words. Then, they are sent to “Wernicke’s Area”, which is responsible for understanding language.

Once I understand what you say, to produce language, signals are sent to “Broca’s Area”. These are then relayed to the motor cortex, which sends signals to the larynx, tongue, and mouth to produce speech.

This entire process leaves a lot of room for error, misunderstanding, and inability to convey what you want to say.

Imagine if you could speak through your thoughts. In other words, carry on a conversation through thought communication. Famous Physicist, Michio Kaku, says that this brain-to-brain communication may help us convey a complete message between each other.

We all know there are some feelings we just can’t put into words. Some emotions are so heavy that there’s no way of conveying them properly and trying to do so just results in frustration.

However, through thought communication, you could send a friend your current consciousness – truly letting them inside your head.

Spending a moment inside someone else’s thoughts would bring context to a conversation that often gets left out. No longer would someone’s intentions be hidden by our external non-verbals. Instead, thought communication makes communicating an open book of understanding.

You’ve heard the saying, “You can’t understand someone until you’ve walked a mile in their shoes.” But, empathizing still leaves room for interpretation.

The new saying will be, “You can’t understand someone until you’ve spent a moment in their thoughts.”

Neuralink provides an opportunity to not only download knowledge but to download experiences. And in experiencing exactly what someone else has gone through, we may be able to better solve our problems with others.

Losing Our Touch

For now, while researchers and scientists create the best Neuralink neural implant, we must continue to connect with others as best we can.

It starts with spontaneous interactions.

Every time I feel lonely and hidden by my technology, I go for a walk. In that walk, I try to make eye-contact and smile at as many people as possible.

Although I have more misses than hits, I can see the other person’s day brighten when we lock eyes.

I dare you to spark up a conversation today with a stranger. Or just give them a smile. Do not lose your spontaneous touch.

Half the reason I create these Quick Theories is to give you something interesting and out of the ordinary to talk about. Call up a friend and talk to them about this topic. And if you would be so kind, please share the article on social media for others to enjoy (using the links below).

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Messaging Apps Are Severely Cluttering Our Progress

Every time you message a friend online, you are forced to choose between dozens of different messaging apps that all serve the same purpose. We can all agree this fiasco of too many messaging apps causes confusion, stress, and leads to an even worse communication experience. For that reason, the future of messaging relies on consolidating all messaging platforms into one experience.

Before we solve the problem, we need to understand how we created the problem.

Consolidating Devices

Back in 2007, Steve Jobs changed the world when he captivated an audience at the MacWorld conference. About twenty minutes into his presentation, he prepped the audience for his big unveiling.

Jobs said that he was going to introduce “three revolutionary new products of this class”:

  1. A widescreen iPod with touch controls
  2. A revolutionary mobile phone
  3. And a breakthrough internet communications device

Then, after adding a little Steve Jobs charm, he told the audience it was actually just one product.

The iPhone!

What made the iPhone so impressive, was that it consolidated the vast landscape of devices. The iPhone consumed the iPod and mp3 player, the digital camera, the calculator, the blackberry and the palm pilot, the laptop, and even the home computer.

In consolidating all these devices into one, Jobs undoubtedly decluttered desks and enhanced productivity, all while looking really good.

Ironically, though, Jobs replaced the device problem with a messaging problem. By outfitting all iPhones with iMessage, he created an exclusive messaging club for Apple users.

For instance, I’m an iPhone user but my friend Matt is an Android user. When we text each other, it is simply plain text SMS. Nothing special. Links I send him don’t show up with an image, videos don’t play right in the messaging interface, and a multitude of other features that iPhone-to-iPhone communication allows don’t happen.

To fill this void awkward void, we now have Facebook Messenger, Skype, WhatsApp, iMessage, Snapchat, Instagram Direct Messages, Twitter Direct Messages, LinkedIn Messaging, Slack, FaceTime, Google Hangouts…

Phew (breathes heavily)…

Line, Telegram, BBM, Google Chat, Allo, Signal, Viber, WeChat, Kik, LiveProfile, Tencent QQ, AIM, iChat, Yahoo, ICQ, GroupMe, Vkontakte, Mail.Ru Agent, Odnoklassniki, Yandex chat, Mamba.Ru, Mig33, SINA Weibo, Renren, Fetion, Gadu-Gadu, MeinVZ and Jabber…and I probably left a few out.

The State of Emergency in Messaging Apps

When I open up my phone, I count 18 different ways I can message a friend.

If it’s work-related, I choose Slack, LinkedIn, or Email. If it’s personal, I may send an iMessage, FaceTime, or Facebook Message. And if I want the world to hear me, I choose Twitter, Facebook, or Instagram.

Each of these messaging platforms has a different format, as well. On Twitter, I’m forced to be brief, while Email expects me to be brief. On Slack, I have to address particular people in a group chat, while Facebook expects me to never single anyone out.

I say all this to confuse you…because it confuses me!

Don’t get me wrong, I love communicating with friends and think technology has made it a lot easier. But, it’s no fun thinking long and hard about which one of my messaging platforms best fits my message.

The alternative is choosing just a couple messaging apps to use. Of course, this is an awful alternative because you may miss out on some important communication.

For instance, I’ve never been a big Snapchatter, yet, one of my friends from childhood only uses Snapchat to keep in touch.

So, you sign up for more messaging apps than you need and turn on your push notifications so you don’t miss a message. But, this results in too much advertising noise.

Messaging a friend on Facebook is impossible without getting sidetracked by a LeBron James highlight reel, a Breaking News Update from The New York Times, or some other random thing I don’t need to pay attention to.

With all of this noise, we forget what we intended to do…communicate.

The only way to solve this horrible predicament is to consolidate them together. Which, ironically, they’ve already begun doing…

Messaging Platforms All Look the Same

The purpose of messaging apps is pretty clear: to communicate in the best way possible. However, as the popular messaging platforms release new, innovative updates, it forces the others to copy them. There are only so many ways to communicate. To not offer a popular feature that a competitor offers, could mean the end of that messaging platform.

As a result, the top messaging platforms must copy each other to stay relevant.

I like to joke around with my friends that the VP of Product at Facebook, is Snapchat. Over the past few months, Instagram (a Facebook company) copied almost every Snapchat update. 

Now, in my eyes, if all the messaging apps do the same thing, in the same way, but are in different locations…isn’t that a huge waste of time and space?

Facebook has ideas of a consolidating all of its messaging platforms (Facebook, Messenger, and Instagram) into the Facebook app. But, hasn’t acted yet.

At a basic level, we communicate through hands, eyes, ears, and voice. One of the main reasons we have so many different messaging platforms is that different situations require different ways of communicating.

If I’m cooking, I can’t use my hands to text. But, I can use my voice, ears, and eyes to talk via phone or video chat.

If I’m at a noisy bar, I can’t use my ears and voice to talk. But, I can use my hands and eyes to text message.

Ideally, this consolidated, singular messaging platform would encompass all of our communication needs and adapt to the scenario we find ourselves in.

Decluttering Your Life

The only logical solution to regaining our focus with communication is to do what Steve Jobs once did with our devices…declutter by consolidation.

You can either be the Steve Ballmer and think this is an idiotic impossibility since we need different messaging apps for different functions. Or, you can be the Steve Jobs and realize that bringing all communication into one messaging platform would allow us to create better experiences suited to the user.

Although competition breeds innovation, sometimes you need to declutter the playing field to create a more streamlined experience.

This is no different than planning your daily routine. A cluttered day causes stress, discomfort, and non-optimal performance.

Taking a moment to write out your daily schedule allows you to determine what unnecessary activities are taking away from your day. Eliminating the deadweight frees up time for more important things.

Decluttering leads to balance. And when you are balanced, you are happy.

I’m glad you took the time to balance your day with some knowledge. If you enjoyed reading this Quick Theories article, I’d truly appreciate if you shared it one of your countless messaging platforms using the links below.

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Emoji Language is The First Unified, World Language

We’ve all had that unfortunate moment when you send a playful text message that someone takes too seriously. Other times, you just can’t seem to find the words to convey what you are feeling. Texting is great until you encounter what words can’t properly say. That’s why the digital world is turning toward one coherent language: the Emoji Language.

You may think of them as just small pictures to spice up your conversations, but the Emoji Language is destined to be so much more than that.

A Unified, World Language

If globalization has taught me anything, it’s that there are too many languages to be able to understand everyone at all times. While it would be nice to have a world meeting where we determined one language going forward, killing off languages is like stripping identity.

Luckily, there’s no cultural baggage with the Emoji Language. They are nothing more than symbols that adapt complex ideas. But, these symbols cross borders and boundaries without losing anything to translation issues.

Even though Emojis condense emotions, thoughts, actions, and nouns, they have no language barrier.

Recently, I was searching for a used car and was invited to a group chat for cars. The only problem: it was all international Chinese students. Ironically, the only times I ever felt a part of the conversation was when they used Emojis since they transcend both Chinese and English.  

Whether you live in Tallahassee, Tibet, or Timbuktu, the 😀  means the same thing everywhere to anyone.

Of course, you may think that Emojis are simplistic. But, so are words. It’s not until we connect multiple Emojis that we create more complex meanings (just like words).

For example, try and interpret this Emoji sequence: 🐝 🐝 🔄 🚫 🐝 🐝 ➡️ ❓

Stumped? Its direct correlation to English is: To be or not to be, that is the question.

You see, the Emoji Language can convey what words convey, in a lighter manner.

Right about now, you either think I’m crazy or stupid. But, that’s because you haven’t studied the Emoji Language.

Just Enroll in Emoji University

Like any foreign language, you can choose to learn it or use technology to learn it for you. The Emoji Language is scary to you because you haven’t studied it.

Just like you probably can’t understand why there’s an Emojitracker that tracks the appearance of every Emoji on Twitter, why someone created Emoji Masks or the point of a physical keyboard that types Emojis.

Not to worry, the youth will teach you. I watch my 14-year-old brother text his friends and he uses more than ten-fold the amount of Emojis I use. It’s just natural to them.

As the esteemed linguist, Gretchen McCulloch argues, Emojis are like gestures that bring emotion to our emotionless text. And I would agree with her when it comes to anyone born before 2000. However, this isn’t the case for everyone.

The youth have embraced Emojis as integral tools for expressing their emotions, well-being, and intentions. You and I only understand the use of one or two Emojis as a means to bringing life to a conversation.

Emoji fluency transcends what textual language does. But, Emoji fluency is hard to achieve. Right now it is a matter of the “haves and have-nots”.

Lucky for you, the “haves” want you to learn the Emoji Language. Emojipedia is the first online textbook for learning the individual characters in this complex language. Emojisaurus helps bring clarity to Emoji phrases.

Fairly soon, I expect someone to open up an online class for attaining Emoji literacy and fluency…and I hope they call it the Emoji University.

In their current state, Emojis are used to add emphasis. But, they are still in their infancy.

The Emoji Language is evolving…

Today, there are over 2,666 official Emojis. But, the language is far from complete. It will continually evolve as more Emojis are added to the language.

When Oxford Dictionary awarded the “Face with Tears of Joy” the 2015 Word of the Year, it was one small step for language and one giant leap for language-kind.

So far, there’s no agreed upon grammar rules, no consistency of message, and that angers many “traditional” thinkers. But, when have traditional thinkers ever maintained their power?

The beauty of all logograms – written characters that represent a word or phrase – is that they can be interpreted in a number of ways depending on the viewer and their state of mind. There’s no Hammurabi code to tell us exactly what each one means and what people are trying to say…but hasn’t that been the struggle of language forever?!

Whether or not you believe in the abilities of the Emoji Language, you cannot deny the advantages it poses in connecting with anyone, anywhere.

History is a broken record when it comes to hating “foreigners”. But, when I watch my little brother string together Emoji sentences, I revel in the possibility of the Emoji Language transcending all differences of race, ethnicity, and status. A leveled playing field for all cultures to communicate across all differences.

Emojis may never replace English or Spanish or Mandarin.

But, the future belongs to the youth…and they’ve unanimously chosen Emojis as their digital language.

Cultivating Youthfulness

The youth hold the answers to many of our problems. Fresh minds that aren’t tarnished by their own criticisms are key to creativity, innovation, and problem-solving.

Youthfulness isn’t an age, though it mostly occurs in young people. Youthfulness is a mindset. It means to not doubt yourself, to set aside time to let your own imagination run wild with possibility.

Undoubtedly, we need to listen to those that still have youth and encourage their dreams. Every time you place youth in a mold, it sets that person up to make the same mistakes as you, look at problems from the same viewpoint, and lose their own inventive identity.

The other day, a friend’s 12-year-old son told me he wanted to invent an anti-microwave which cooled down food in just minutes. Instantly, I told him to read some physics books and see if it was possible.

Whether or not the laws of physics allow such a machine to be made is irrelevant. It’s his unique mindset that shows promise to me.

Before I write these Quick Theories, I always try and open myself up to youthfulness and see what unique angle I can take. If you enjoyed reading this Quick Theories, I’d truly appreciate if you would share it on social media with your friends!

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Language Barrier is No Match for a Voice Translator

Undoubtedly, we all want to see different parts of the world and connect with new people. Unfortunately, overcoming the language barrier is often too difficult. Luckily, this daunting language barrier is dissolving with the rise of voice translator technology and the wearable translator.

Within half a day you can be halfway around the world, experiencing a new culture. So why isn’t it that easy to converse halfway around the world?

Traveling with a Wearable Translator

One of the main reasons I’ve never traveled outside the US is the fear of being lost in translation. Basically, feeling alien to everyone around me because I can’t communicate with anyone. That’s a scary situation.

Today, there are many translation apps, but who wants to huddle around an iPhone and type responses to each other. It’s awkward. 

The alternative is picking up one of those nifty English to Spanish dictionaries and painstakingly piecing together sentences that really don’t make sense.

That’s where this incoming class of wearable translator devices is interesting. A handheld, wearable translator such as ili can turn English into Spanish, Mandarin, or Japanese, with nothing more than your voice.

Unlike an app, this wearable translator doesn’t depend on wi-fi or good signal. It has already learned the languages and acts as the bridge between them.

With a wearable translator in hand, curious tourists can ask locals whatever they want in their native language. And tourists aren’t the only travelers that could benefit from a voice translator.

Imagine if Doctors Without Borders or the Red Cross outfitted all of their workers with a wearable translator. Giving treatment after disasters or in Third World countries would become a more personal interaction – using a voice translator to emotionally connect with the patients. Countless social entrepreneurship companies that could benefit from breaking down the language barrier. 

Although travelers rule the wearable translator market, it isn’t the only industry with a language barrier.

Overcoming the Business Language Barrier

When Phil Knight started Nike in the 1960s (then, Blue Ribbon Sports) he admired the industrial side of Japan. Unfortunately, international business wasn’t a common practice. But, he didn’t let the language or geographic barrier stop him. He just flew over to Japan and walked right into Onitsuka Tiger (now Asics). Although some of them spoke English, he had many misunderstandings due to the language barrier.

Yes, money is the common language of business, but often times the language barrier still hurts the common understanding. Today, this business language barrier is slowly dissolving thanks to Skype and Microsoft.

Back when I ran a digital art marketplace, many of the artists I worked with were located in eastern Europe. Many of them spoke English, but with thick accents and minimal understanding.

Skype was always a go-to tool for making these long-distance calls because they have an in-app translation feature. The feature is not quite seamless, but it worked well enough that they’ve now added the feature to PowerPoint presentations.  

This lineup of voice translator features alleviates the language barrier that exists in international business. As individual economies blend into the singular World economy, and international business becomes more commonplace, at the forefront of this wave will be real-time voice translators.

For the time being, these translators still have many kinks to unkink as this video hilariously shows.  

So, while these companies are perfecting their voice translator devices, perhaps we can use these tools instead to become better language learners.

Learning Through a Voice Translator

They say the best way to learn a language is to immerse yourself in it. I’ve attempted learning Latin, French, Spanish, and Italian, but am fluent in none of them because I never had a native speaker to casually converse with.

But, what if a wearable translator worked in the opposite way – turning native language into a foreign language – changing your language reality?

Taking an in-ear wearable translator like the Pilot Translating Earpiece, and flipping the settings, you could effectively change the language someone spoke to you in.

Say you wanted to learn German, but everyone around you spoke English. Using one of these earpieces, you could convert all the spoken English around you to German and feel as if you were at a Cafe in Berlin.

Further, if friends and family had the earpieces, they’d hear what you say in German, in English, and give feedback.

Of course, this may not be the best way to learn a language, but it would be a new way of immersing oneself in another language without having to spend money on a language coach or travel expenses.

Learning new languages is hard but also eye-opening. Language is a door into a culture. And in learning about other cultures and other ways of life, we realize that our way of doing things isn’t the only way (nor the best way) of doing something.

Naturally, our focus tends to stay on optimizing our own lives. But, this is one of those endless cycles of unsatisfaction.

Get out of your way

You can spend a lifetime solving every single one of your struggles, not realizing that there are other people with the same problem.

Going out of your way to forget your struggles and help someone else overcome theirs will not only benefit them, but you may get a new idea to better solve your problems.

We get in the way of ourselves all day long. And the best way to get out of your own way is to get in the way of others…in a good way.

That goes for knowledge too. Hoarding knowledge does not give you an advantage over others. If you enjoyed this article, do someone else a favor by sharing it.

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Future of Journalism relies on YOU, the reader

Stressed, coffee-addicted journalists are evolving into major media brands themselves, leaving behind companies like The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, to cover the news in their own way – free from the political agendas of major media. Over the next decade, we’ll witness the solo journalist and the journalist engineer redefine the future of journalism.

Every week, I aim to embody this class of solo journalist that goes against the grain to deliver the news. I started Quick Theories, the weekly technology newsletter you are currently indulging, to help you understand the broad tech concepts that are shaping our future. So you can be proactive, not reactive, regarding technology adoption.  

Before starting Quick Theories, I would’ve written for an online tech publication like Engadget, Inverse, or The Verge to get my thoughts across. Now, I compete with them every week thanks to my loyal audience (by the way, thank you!).

This incoming class of solo journalists breaks down the knowledge barrier of major media brands, liberating us from biased confines.

Pigeonholing the Solo Journalist

Since one person cannot produce articles at the rate of  The New York Times, no matter how many AI writers they create, the solo journalist excels by covering a niche.  

A solo journalist can be an aggregator of knowledge. For instance, Elon Musk News by Zachary Kyra-Derksen compiles everything happening in the Elon-Musk-stratosphere and condenses it into a bi-weekly email newsletter followed by over 220,000 people. (Funny how Elon is in the media so much that Zachary can create an entire newsletter around him)

Sometimes, a solo journalist might comment on the news. A great example is The Information by Jessica Lessin (and a few others), which publishes investigative articles about Silicon Valley to over 2,917 paying members. News commentary doesn’t necessarily report the latest news, but their unique voice conveys the message better (Quick Theories falls in this category).

In other cases, a solo journalist may act as a product influencer. Ben Brooks self-describes The Brooks Review as a no bullshit take on products (apps, iPad, backpacks, etc…). Every week, he gives over 400 paying subscribers product reviews that aren’t swayed by the budget of any particular company.

Interestingly, a solo journalist may just provide insights on life, love, and the pursuit of happiness. One of my favorites is Mike’s Notes by Michael Dariano, which provides valuable book summaries, big ideas, lessons learned, and ways for making decisions. Mike turned his life’s influences into content for others’ enjoyment – like his very own Oprah’s Book Club.

All of these show that the future of journalism doesn’t revolve around massive entities with a “trustworthy” name. Even though 53% of Americans pay for news, often times these entities will turn their back on readers to satisfy their investors.

The Reader is the Purpose

The future of journalism depends on solo journalists that genuinely care about their readers, are interested in conversing ideas, and have a unique way of conveying a message.

The successful solo journalist simply has a pure purpose – the reader.

With the right intentions comes trust. How can you trust someone that isn’t transparent? I never hold back an opinion or withhold knowledge for the sake of the Quick Theories brand because it hurts us both if I lie to you.

Trust isn’t the only catalyst, either. The solo journalist also uses technology to replace words, enhance words, and make words go further.

The Journalist Engineer

Increasingly, news coverage will be ruled by the journalist engineer in the future of journalism. Essentially, the journalist engineer will code, design, and write.

How do you ensure your news isn’t fake? By presenting data, right? Some of the most popular New York Times articles this year have been interactive data representations on oil prices and migration patterns.

However, to create these advanced data models goes beyond creating a simple graph. It requires knowledge of a programming language known as D3, which specializes in producing dynamic, interactive data visualizations in web browsers. News written in code is becoming a popular way of conveying a message…because who doesn’t love pictures.

It’s not all about data either. Design is important too. Those that have made a living designing interactive apps are in a perfect position to transition their design-oriented mind from gaining users to engaging readers. Thus, finding new ways to design the news experience to be more engaging will be very lucrative for the journalist engineer.

The journalist engineer has a multitude of tools at their disposal and needs to be well-versed in all things technology. They won’t necessarily program AI to write their articles, but AI will assist them heavily.

They’ll have an AI assistant like M to help them gather research and insights. Grammarly (or competitors) will evolve to help edit and make sure articles flow for optimal readership. And AI will even collaborate with journalists to reach new audiences.

Personally, as a journalist engineer, I use a tool called Yoast to analyze my articles. Yoast helps me create content that is easier to read and SEO-friendly.

Despite having all the technology in the world, though, how does a solo journalist get readers without the distribution channels of a media brand?

Distribution in the Future of Journalism

If you don’t have an audience, then go where the audience already is – kind of like how opening a restaurant near a mall is a sure-fire way of getting foot-traffic.

With over 1.9 billion active users on Facebook and 3.5 billion daily searches on Google, no doubt this is where the people are at.

Solo journalists know how to use these platforms to spread their voice. Not to toot my own horn, but that’s how I grew this Quick Theories newsletter to over 10,000 subscribers. By posting articles every day on LinkedIn (probably where you found me) and Facebook. I went where the people already were and made content that grabbed people’s attention.

Because the solo journalist doesn’t have access to the inside scoop like The New York Times does, they often are forced to comment on the news in a novel way.

For instance, not a single one of the 51 articles I’ve published on LinkedIn was “new” news. I simply used my unique voice to cover the facts that big name publishers boringly stated elsewhere. Another great example of commenting on the news in a novel way is DJ Akademiks. He’s a YouTube personality that delivers all the drama of the hip-hop realm.

Big Media brands can’t take the risk of being too opinionated. But, the solo journalist makes their living off of their risky, unique opinion – taking advantage of the huge opportunity to create commentary around the news.

Trust is a Two-Way Street

In being opinionated, though, the solo journalist encounters many disagreements with their readers. Holding firm and staying true to their argument builds a rapport between reader and writer that transcends the digital medium.

One of my frequent commenters, Chip, is often picking apart my argument. And I love it! When I see commenters that disagree with me, it tells me I’m doing something right. That we are breaking down the digital barrier and beginning a relationship of trust. A relationship where I challenge my readers’ opinions and my readers hold me accountable to my thoughts.

Think about some of your strongest friendships. They are probably with people you disagree with often – challenging each other’s mindset to get better.

The solo journalist builds trust by speaking their mind and furthering the exploration of knowledge.

As we weather the storm of this transitional period in media, above all the journalist of the future needs to focus on creating great content. We are a species that loves “to know”. We want to know what’s going on with our friends, our communities, our investments, and our future.

The basic tenet of journalism – to spread knowledge – will never change. All that changes for the future of journalism is how it is done.

Knowledge is your most valuable asset

There’s no barrier to attaining knowledge. You don’t have to file taxes on knowledge. And a certain kind of knowledge brings power.

But, it’s also the only asset that disappears when you pass away. Which is why knowledge is meant to be shared.

The moment you learn something new, go teach it to the next person you talk to.

Hoarding knowledge does not give you an advantage, so share it.

That’s why I created Quick Theories – a weekly newsletter exploring modern technology and its possible effects on your future – to help you understand and adopt technology in your own creative way.

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Autonomous Companies (RoboCorp) Don’t Need Human Workers

We are just a few years away from seeing and interacting with companies that run themselves. In other words, autonomous companies (also known as RoboCorp) operated by algorithms will generate revenue all day long. That’s like saying there’s a house that can lay its own concrete foundation…unbelievable!

Get ready. These autonomous companies are heading straight for the Fortune 500 list.

The Rich Get Richer

Unsurprisingly, the very first glimpses of RoboCorp are coming to a Hedge Fund near you. Imagine that, a machine trading all day on the stock market.

Now, I’m not referring to the machine-like consistency of the Oracle of Omaha, Warren Buffet. I’m talking about the hedge fund, Aidyia, which is completely powered by Artificial General Intelligence – a true RoboCorp.

Using algorithms that can identify patterns and predict price movements, Aidyia’s algorithms boast a 2% return on their fund. By no means is this a fortune, but it’s a start.

What makes their algorithms unique, is that they are inspired by genetic evolution. Basically, they create scenarios of “survival of the fittest AI” to create the almighty AI that they’ll entrust with the trades.

Now, don’t mistaken with high-frequency trading, which leverages computers to make millisecond trades on millions of shares. This RoboCorp hedge fund might sit on a stock for a few hours, days, or months until it feels necessary to sell.

And since Aidyia’s future is so promising, many other hedge funds are getting into the AI game. Pretty soon, AI may be the only thing capable of investing in the stock market.

Not only will RoboCorps trade the stocks of the Fortune 500, but will eventually become a company (or companies) on the Fortune 500.

Autonomous Companies: powered by a mission statement

Autonomous companies like autonomous vehicles will go through stages of autonomy. They’ll start by automating singular tasks and work their way up to making decisions on their own. In between, they’ll automate certain jobs which it can do better than humans.

Eventually, software will automate more and more jobs within a sector. At that point, it will make sense for Artificial Intelligence to be in a managerial role since they speak the same language.

Programmed with a specific mission statement in mind, and limited by fail safes that make sure they can’t change their own rules, AI will become the C-suite Executives.

So often, high-level decisions come down to the numbers. If the dollars don’t make sense, then neither does the decision. AI is pretty unbiased when it comes to making judgments. Their only goal is to fulfill its mission statement and do what’s best for the company.

However, this also brings up the paperclip scenario, where an AI paperclip company does such a good job at being profitable, it kills off all other existence for resources. While this may be an extreme example, it sparks conversation around competition.

Any RoboCorp with the right “team” could potentially be a monopoly of all monopolies since it’s always improving and fulfilling its goal. We take a look at Google, whose description began encompassing so many initiatives that they had to create a parent company, Alphabet, to be the company of all their companies.

Imagine the RoboCorp version of Google. Pretty scary.

While I don’t have an answer to how we’d stop it, we do know that all evil must be balanced with good. So, hopefully, there’d be a booming business around creating another RoboCorp tasked with competing and bringing down rogue, monopolistic autonomous companies…like a RoboCorp Skynet.

Where do humans fit in with RoboCorp?

If you aren’t on the profiting end of one of these RoboCorps, you can’t help but wonder what role you’ll play.

Well, luckily AI still needs creative thinkers – at least for now. It needs people that can think up new avenues of revenue, create design prototypes, understand what makes someone buy something, etc… So, Liberal Arts may not be a bad major after all.   

On the flip side, non-creative people may be confined to working in a virtual sweatshop built by one of these RoboCorps. Currently, sites such as Mechanical Turk offer people pennies to tag photos, complete surveys, and other HITs (Human Intelligence Tasks) that’ll help the AI learn.

The digital underclass will complete thousands of these micro-tasks daily. Thus, transforming a personal computer into a seat at the new digital assembly line. Millions of these micro-tasks will be available daily, as they are the very things that help make AI smarter.  

In other words, if you don’t define yourself as a creative thinker right now, I would highly suggest you begin honing your skills. There’s no trick. It just takes time to develop your creativity – trying out different mediums until you find one that you enjoy.

Honestly, the media has portrayed a bleak Future of Work where everyone loses their job and is miserable. But, I say, if a robot wants to do my job and do it better…go for it! With the right mindset, I’ll find something else.

There’s dignity in every job

My grandfather always tells me to value every working man and woman, no matter their profession. Never consider a job to be trivial, because each one is important in its own particular way.

Most importantly, he’d say, “There is dignity in every job. Find it!”

Yes, there are jobs that seem so menial a monkey could do it. But, there is still dignity in it because it has to be done. Often times, the jobs people generally place little dignity on (plumber, electrician, mechanic, custodian) are so invaluable we couldn’t live without them.

There’s always work to be done and jobs to be had. Whether or not you allow yourself to find dignity in the job makes all the difference.

For me, the dignity goes deeper than notoriety. I love having great readers like yourself, but I find enjoyment just in creating these Quick Theories articles.

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The iPhone is a Black Box and Other Wearable Device Detectives

Crime investigation is an industry ripe for disruption. Shows like “The First 48” give us a glimpse into how ineffective lie detector tests and interviews can be when trying to place someone at the scene of a crime. Forensics and DNA testing show us how many people the justice system wrongfully convicts. Interestingly, though, there’s a group of crime investigators making a strong push toward the top; one’s a black box that sits in your pocket and the other on your wrist.

Together, the iPhone and wearable devices bring data to the scene of the crime. They act as the “fly on the wall” before, during, and after a crime takes place.

Obviously, video evidence is the most incriminating evidence we can have. But, getting someone in plain sight isn’t always that easy. Luckily, our technology gives us a better context of the situation.

Step Counts are Side Effects

Fitbits and fitness trackers have our permission to peep on our privacy. But could they be a reliable witness? Well, why don’t you ask Richard Dabate, the husband, and prime suspect in the murder, of Connie Dabate?

At first, Richard’s story had no holes in it. An intruder clearly broke into their house, tied Richard to a chair, and struggled with Connie before murdering her. Sniffer dogs and gunshot residue tests both came back inconclusive.

Then, the prosecution got an idea. Richard’s story warranted Connie to walk no more than 125 feet (the distance between the garage and basement). However, Connie’s Fitbit showed that Connie had walked over 1,200 steps at the alleged time of the attack. Sounds a bit fishy, right?

Richard Dabate was charged with murder, tampering with evidence, and providing false statements, thanks to Fitbit evidence. Overall, it’s a big win for Fitbit and fitness trackers as key witnesses, showing the hidden abilities these devices offer.

Amazon Echo Pleads the Fifth

On the other hand, just because technology is present doesn’t mean it’s a reliable witness. According to an Arkansas hot tub murder, the Amazon Echo (who is the only witness) is providing no help.

Amazon claims the device has no audio recordings since the device only records when after hearing a “wake word”. Either this is an unfortunate truth, or Amazon doesn’t want to fess up.

The conspiracy theorist in me believes that Amazon isn’t giving in because it would prove the Echo is always recording. This would spur an entirely new debate on privacy issues. In their mind, they are playing a larger game of chess and they’d be losing their queen if they gave out this info.

Regardless, our technology devices are beginning to look like items in CLUE, giving us hints in the classic game of Whodunit. Little did you know, you had the candlestick in your pocket the whole time.

iPhone as a Black Box

The few unfortunate times that we hear of a plane crash, interest almost always revolves around finding the black box. To the average person, this may sound like some mystical item that tells all truth. In reality, it just records conversations…and isn’t even black.

The aerospace industry calls them “electronic flight data recorders”. They usually give investigators a glimpse into what went wrong before the crash. Even though black boxes are archaic technology compared to our phones, they are still very useful. So useful, that Apple has copied the idea without your knowledge.

Apple HQ knew that the iPhone was a data collecting device, gathering valuable insights into people’s lives. So, why not make it a black box for humans? With the iPhone always on and collecting data, they could effectively gather “evidence” leading up to technical difficulties, disasters, and foul play – just like the Airplane black box does.

I bet you never thought of it like that.

The iPhone stores valuable health data just like the Fitbit, which proved to be helpful already. The iPhone also has a responsive microphone, just like the Amazon Echo, which might record conversations so that Siri can appear when requested. Lastly, add in the ability to communicate via voice and text, capture video footage, etc… and you have the ultimate evidence collector.

There’s just one problem. What if the device is dropped in water, smashed to pieces, or burned to ash after the evidence is captured?

First, Apple is trying their best to create an indestructible device that isn’t affected by water, heat or electromagnetic pulses. Of course, everything breaks at some point.

So, that’s where their backup plan comes into play. Using RFID (radio-frequency identification) the iPhone can send a signal right before evidence is tampered with. In the past, RFID has been used for highway tolls, inventory management, badge entry, public transportation, and wireless transactions. But, your iPhone today can send information that isn’t “fixed”, that changes depending on the circumstances. Just like crime scene evidence.

While we haven’t necessarily seen this black box in action, it’s a capability that they are sitting on. In a sense, Apple has effectively put the ultimate Sherlock Holmes in everyone’s front pocket, solving crimes and promoting justice like never before.

The future of criminal justice

Movies like The Minority Report portray a future where “oracles” predict crimes before they occur. In real life, the government has employed a data collection and analysis agency known as Palantir Technologies. By spying on the public, they aim to stop terrorism and eventually crime altogether.

But, I don’t know if I want to live in a world where crime doesn’t exist and innocent mistakes could prove fatal to your future. I’d rather picture a future where our devices record enough real-time data to ensure criminals don’t ever get away.

With technology as the detectives, showing the judge and jury exactly what happened, perhaps the justice system can make a healthy transformation. The facts will be clear and indisputable, allowing the justice system to consider other variables such as intention and circumstance – before delivering the verdict.

Perhaps in this future, justice is served based on individual character, not a precedent set 40 years ago. White collar criminals get what they truly deserve, not a special treatment.

Evil will always exist. Nature needs a balance of good and evil.

So, instead of thinking about “how things should be”, our focus should shift toward “how things are”. With this mindset, we can address the current state of crime and justice to make changes today. Not depending on a fantasy where evil vanishes for good.  

The idea of “what is” vs. “what should be” exists in all areas of our lives.

“What is” and “what should be”

When we focus our attention on “what should be”, our thoughts are centered on something that is missing. An idea isn’t in practice, there aren’t muscles where they should be, or the number in our bank account isn’t quite there.

Unfortunately, “what should be” is never satisfied because as we begin to find what we thought was missing, we discover that something else is missing too, and then another thing. And this process goes on forever.

Now, this isn’t to say that goals aren’t good. But, redirecting your attention on “what is” as you work toward your goals will allow you to notice the positive things that are present.

In other words, value what you have, not what you are missing, and you’ll never feel empty.

This can be a hard idea to live by when it comes to technology since its advancement is so fast. For that reason, I created Quick Theories – a brief, weekly newsletter with my thoughts on modern technology and its effects on your future – helping you understand “what is” going on now.

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Overcoming Anxiety of the Future of Work

Will I be replaced by Artificial Intelligence? What will I do if my line of work becomes automated? How can I possibly learn new skills? All of these questions, and much more accumulate when pondering the Future of Work. Honestly, overcoming the anxiety associated with the mysterious Future of Work may be the hardest obstacle.

With less than optimistic news floating around from the likes of The New York Times and Forbes and popular headlines such as “The Jobless Economy” and “Are Virtual Sweatshops the Future of Work”, it’s hard to feel confident that any job is secure.

So, instead of talking about the computers that can write their own code, robots that’ll take your order, and AI paralegals that can sift through thousands of cases instantaneously, I’d like to approach this conversation from an actionable standpoint. As in, what are actionable insights to ensure job security for the fast approaching Future of Work?

Liberal Arts for the Win

AI excels at technical tasks but struggles with the Bigger Picture.

As Mark Cuban points out, critical thinking skills learned through Liberal Arts studies are very important to have in the Future of Work. If he could go back to college, he’d exchange his Accounting degree for one in Philosophy.

For instance, English majors really understand how to form valuable opinions and argue those important points. Art Majors learn a great sense of visual taste, design skills, and an eye for aesthetic. Let’s not forget about the Philosophy majors that can tap into the wisdom of 3,000 years worth of great thinkers.

Generally, Liberal Arts degrees have carried a stigma of useless skills. In the task-oriented, business world, there was no room for creative conversations. But, that was yesterday. Today and tomorrow, intuition and creativity will rule the boardroom. The skills gained in Liberal Arts studies are exactly the skills that will take AI the longest to learn.  

There will always be limitations of technology. Right now, the Liberal Arts are a distinct advantage. However, as AI research continues, these creative skills may also be at risk.

That’s why it’s important to define your view of AI, so you can roll with the punches as AI progresses.

Your Mindset Matters to The Future of Work

Your view of the Future of Work stems from one of two mindsets:

Do you see the rise of AI as an ally or do you see it as an enemy – something that enhances your job, or competes for it?

The more favorable approach is realizing the potential of AI and using its skills to augment your capabilities – using its strengths as a strength of yours to excel further.

Phil Jackson approached coaching the Chicago Bulls in this way. He realized that Michael Jordan’s biggest strength wasn’t necessarily his skill, but that he was like honey to a bunch of bees. The other teams always heavily guarded him. Instead of creating plays that focused on getting MJ open, Phil designed plays that created MJ as a diversion. When teams keyed in on the swift style of MJ, he dished the ball to Pippen, Paxson, Kerr, and others. Six NBA championships later, using the strength of their star player as a diversion enhanced MJ’s play and the entire team.

On the flip side, I would advise against entering in a competition with AI. But, if you choose that mindset, then don’t focus on AI’s strengths because you’ll never beat them. Instead, pinpoint AI’s weaknesses and make those your strengths.

The entire genre of hip-hop was heavily influenced by this style of thinking. The RZA, of the Wu-Tang Clan, noticed the limitations of the musical technology present. At the time, beat-making machines could only record two bars at a time. This limitation gave birth to a form of production known as sampling, where producers used the beats and hooks in other popular music to create new beats (hence the name, sampling). In using this weakness of technology to his advantage, the RZA catapulted the Wu-Tang Clan to the top of the charts and influenced a slew of future hip-hop producers such as Kanye West and The Alchemist.

The limitations of technology can become artistic tools themselves, as the RZA showcased. Which spurs the question of creativity and AI.

Is creativity the only safe profession?

Many people believe that a computer can’t be creative, that it can’t have an original thought. But, there are early warning signs that this isn’t true. AI is proving to us that it can write pretty well, and may have a future in picking up where Shakespeare left off. Google’s AI art project, Deep Dream, is churning out inspirational (and freaky) art constantly.

So, will AI master the creative output?

Maybe. Even if it does, there’s nothing to worry about because beauty is in the eye of the beholder. There will always be a connection between humans and the art they make.

Not to mention, creativity is greatest during times of competition. Commonly, creative communities foster a healthy competitive challenge of one-upping each other. The Renaissance was so profound because there were hundreds of thousands of people sitting around with nothing to do but be more creative than the next guy. People point to the best period in hip-hop when Biggie Smalls and Tupac Shakur pitted the West Coast against the East Coast, and the styles became distinct.

Instead of AI replacing creative professions, they will enhance them. Man and machine will work together to ask each other questions that have never been asked before. Creative projects will be heavily influenced by the technology that augments the creative process. Similar to how Andy Warhol had a team of creatives he worked with daily, creatives of the future will have teams of AI to work alongside, bolstering each other’s expression.

In fact, many people even believe the Future of Work isn’t going to be work, but rather a Second Renaissance. The skilled writer, artist, and musician will further use technology as inspiration and creative tools to best express themselves.

So, don’t fret that there will never be any more jobs, ever, in the Future of Work. It’s just a transitional period. Perhaps the biggest takeaway you can have in preparation for the Future of Work is the importance of overcoming the anxiety of it.

Overcoming Anxiety is the Key

Anxiety is a normal reaction. It means that you care about something important. Yet, overcoming anxiety is harder than taking a few deep breaths (even though that will help).

However, you must reframe your mindset towards one of preparation to overcome anxiety.

In the wise words of the late, great Bruce Lee, “Don’t be forecasting evil unless it is what you can guard against. Anxiety is good for nothing if we can’t turn it into a defense.”

Overcoming anxiety is rooted in preparation. Finding areas of anxiety means you’ve found a weakness. Overcoming anxiety of a strength is never a problem since you have confidence in your abilities.

Therefore, overcoming the anxiety of a weakness means that you must learn about the weakness, study those that have achieved greatness in that area of your weakness, and begin building your defenses there.

Unless redirected to improve and prepare yourself, anxiety is merely mental baggage – weighing your mind down during daily travel.

For the reason that technology and the future can be so overwhelming, I created Quick Theories – a weekly newsletter exploring modern technology and its possible effects on your future – to help you understand and adopt technology in your own creative way.

If you enjoyed this article and would like to receive one weekly, sign-up here:

Natural Language Generation Turns Robots Into Writers

What would our computers tell us if we gave them a voice? We’ll soon find out thanks to Natural Language Generation which gives computers a written opinion on virtually anything.

For now, we must program their responses, but soon they’ll form their own opinions and develop a creative voice. This may seem a long way off, so let’s consider their progression as a writer in comparison to a human.

A child progresses as a writer by starting with basic creative writing exercises: What did you do over summer break? Over time, assignments focus on creating technical, justifiable arguments. 

The progression is flipped for computers.

“I’ll need that business report by 4”

Natural Language Generation already has the basics down. With every word in the human language at its disposal, computers only focus is arranging these words. 

So, why not start with an arrangement of words that is so formulaic, writing them is literally just plug and play.

I’m referring to business content. Whether it is earnings reports, SWOT analysis, or market research, with a template and data on hand, Natural Language Generation can spew out a piece of business content that rivals that of a human.

Don’t believe me? Well, a Natural Language Generation tool called Quill writes Forbes’ annual earnings reports. In fact, Gartner predicts machines will author 20% of all business content by 2018.

And that isn’t the only at-risk content.

Anderson “The Natural Language Generation” Cooper

Flashback about eight months to the Rio Olympics. With hundreds of events, exciting matches happening simultaneously, and incentive to be the first to report the latest medal count, news outlets turned to robot journalists for speedy coverage.

Over the 15-day event, Chinese media outlet, Toutiao, unleashed its secret writing weapon: the Xiaomingbot. With its digitized pen in hand, the Xiaomingbot wrote over 450 articles…that’s 30-40 a day!

They weren’t alone either. The Washington Post employed Heliograf, their own robot writer, which they repurposed for coverage of the 2016 Presidential Election.

While neither Heliograf nor Xiaomingbot are capable of writing introspective journalistic pieces, they gave us the news, free from opinion. This allowed other journalists to dig into deeper stories. Perhaps foreshadowing a future where Natural Language Generation software covers all news. 

The secret sauce…

Why are business and news content so appealing to robot writers? Actually, because these forms of content lack emotion, they are easy to write for a robot writer.

We expect emotionless news and business content. Think about how catastrophic it would be if Donald Trump wrote The Trump Organization’s earnings report in a tone of resentment after having a bad hair day. Or, if Anderson Cooper started cursing at terrorists for being too extreme.

It’s a natural fit for an emotionless computer to write with no particular emotional tone. For this reason, people believe that computers will never master creative writing, which relies on the outpouring of one’s emotions.

But, what if Natural Language Generation could fake creativity?

The New York Times, Stephen King Edition

When you take a photo with your phone, you have the option to add filters afterward. Maybe an orange-hued filter to make the photo look warmer, or a glitchy filter to make it look futuristic.

Well, Natural Language Generation can add filters to words. One of the first books written solely by a computer was, True Love. Essentially, it took the famous book by Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina, and worded it in the style of a Japanese author called Haruki Murakami.

After analyzing hundreds of thousands of words from a single author, a computer effectively understands their writing style and can mimic their writing patterns. Now, apply this technique to other written work. 

Imagine buying the Stephen King filter for New York Times articles – reading the gruesome, grisly tale of today’s events. Or, attaching a Dick Vitale filter to Bloomberg reports – listening to the stock news with that splendid, superb announcement style.

Natural Language Generation can turn boring news into interesting works from our favorite personalities.

Computers are finding their voice

In the process of learning other author’s styles, Natural Language Generation software may develop its own style.

All good writers go through a period of finding their voice. To do this, they read thousands of sentences from works they love, emulate the authors they admire, and eventually develop their unique style.

Many people who’ve covered Natural Language Generation believe that a computer will never think creatively on its own – that we’ll never read a profound piece of literature written by a computer. But that’s a limited mindset. The Day A Computer Writes A Novel, a book written by AI almost won a literary prize in Japan.

As best portrayed in the movie Chappie, a brilliant programmer creates true artificial intelligence that can think on its own, pitches it to the CEO, and gets the following response:

“Do you realize you just came to the CEO of a publicly traded weapons corporation and pitched a robot that can write poems?”

Most of the money poured into AI infringes on your digital privacy. Resources aren’t allocated to developing creative artificial intelligence. However, just because we haven’t seen it yet, doesn’t mean it’ll never happen.

All of the examples I’ve mentioned above are the prelude to the album of creative Natural Language Generation to come.

On 2016’s New York Times Bestseller list was The Hidden Life of Trees by Peter Wohlleben, which attempted to uncover the intelligent networks of communication between trees. I’m sure any trees that read Peter’s book laughed at how little we know of them, just like we laugh at the elementary writing abilities of Natural Language Generation.

In due time, Natural Language Generation software will complete its research phase, discover its creative voice, and amaze us with its first introspective novel.

Fake it ‘til you become it

Everyone knows the old adage, “Fake it ‘til you make it.” Pretend you are “one of them” until they accept you. But, in my sophomore year of college, a professor explained to me how horribly wrong this saying is.

If you fake it until you make it, no change is made, and you are the same person just in a new environment.

Rather, he said, “Fake it ‘til you become it.”

If your goal is to get better at giving presentations, show the signs of confidence until you feel confident in front of an audience. If your goal is to become a better friend, pretend to care about all your friend’s problems until you actually do care to listen.

Goals can only truly be achieved internally with an improvement of the spirit. All else feeds the ego.

This especially holds true for learning. Memorizing and remembering things isn’t understanding. Learning occurs when one internalizes the lesson and relates it to their own experiences.

With Quick Theories – my weekly newsletter on the future of technology – I give you the facts with my opinion but want you to form your own thoughts.

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Artificial General Intelligence Approaches Singularity

Intelligence equals power. We are smarter than dogs, therefore we keep them as house pets. Computers will soon be smarter than humans, so they may keep us as house pets (at least that’s what Elon Musk believes). This claim isn’t baseless. In fact, I’m referring to Singularity, which is the moment artificial intelligence surpasses humans in every category of intelligence (Artificial Narrow Intelligence, Artificial General Intelligence, and Artificial Superintelligence).

Superintelligent computers don’t automatically equal the end of humanity. In fact, they could help us solve every problem we face, from world hunger to what you should eat when you’re hungry.

But, with great power comes great responsibility. If the proper fail-safes and standards aren’t programmed into these superintelligent computers, we’ll be staring face-to-screen with the world’s greatest superpower.

The Road to Singularity

As Tim Urban puts it, there are three levels of artificial intelligence on the road to Singularity: Artificial Narrow Intelligence, Artificial General Intelligence, and Artificial Superintelligence.

Unknowingly, we interact with Artificial Narrow Intelligence on a daily basis. Whether it is AutoCorrect on your phone, the spam filter that cleans your email inbox, or the uncanny ability of Netflix to always recommend the perfect movie for you, these AI systems have been programmed to get really good at one thing. For the most part, Artificial Narrow Intelligence is benign – it’ll never go rogue – and is satisfied with ridding the world of every spelling error that exists.

The next step in the evolution, and what researchers are toiling over now, is going from Artificial Narrow Intelligence to Artificial General Intelligence. Artificial General Intelligence encompasses a breadth of knowledge comparable to that of a human brain – decently good at a lot of things.

However, this is much harder than merely meshing together a bunch of Artificial Narrow Intelligence systems. For instance, combining an Artificial Narrow Intelligence of vast culinary knowledge with an Artificial Narrow Intelligence of witty jokes doesn’t result in an Artificial General Intelligence of Guy Fieri, Food Network Star.

Curiosity Killed the Artificial General Intelligence

As humans, our radar for seeking knowledge comes from our curiosity. Thanks to curiosity, we don’t mind going outside of our comfort zone to learn something from scratch. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to program curiosity into a computer.

To create a jack of all trades in AI, researchers propose three things.

First, they can copy the structure of the human brain by creating neural networks. You know that lightbulb moment you get when you connect two things? Behind the scenes, that’s your neurons making connections. Essentially, researchers want to mimic the neuron structure of the human brain, so AI can have lightbulb moments.

The second method (and my favorite) takes a page out of Darwin’s book – “survival of the fittest AI”. Through a series of genetic algorithms, researchers could face two AI systems against one another. Whichever AI completed a task better would survive and be bred (programmed) with other successful AI. The catch? Evolution takes billions of years and we might only have a few decades.

Lastly, and perhaps most frighteningly, would be to let AI do it themselves. Researchers would program a computer with mad skills in researching AI and coding changes into itself. This would allow it to improve its own architecture as it learns, much like a writer makes edits as they write.

People in high places, such as Nick Bostrom, surveyed other intelligent researchers and determined that there’s a 50% chance we’ll achieve Artificial General Intelligence by 2040 and that becomes a 90% by 2075.

Once general intelligence is achieved among AI, then it is their mission to become superintelligent, which some researchers believe will take just hours and other say decades.

Regardless of when Artificial Superintelligence is achieved, I’d like to talk about the implications of superintelligent computers.

Living with Artificial Superintelligence

It’s hard to think of a single problem superintelligence wouldn’t be capable of solving – disease, poverty, environmental destruction, you name it.

Equipped with an advanced understanding of nanotechnology (manipulating individual atoms and molecules) Artificial Superintelligence could change a pile of trash into a feast for a village…and it would taste good too. Applying its understanding of humans, Artificial Superintelligence could stop or reverse the human aging process through the use of nanomedicine or by uploading our brains into new bodies (crazy, right?!).

At the same time, Artificial Superintelligence programmed to rid the world of our problems may find the easiest solution in eliminating humanity…the root of all those problems. Nobody knows the effects of Singularity. Anyone who pretends otherwise doesn’t understand what superintelligence means.

Computers don’t abide by the human moral code. They follow their own programming to the best of their ability. For us to ponder whether the Artificial Superintelligence will be friendly or unfriendly is irrelevant. We really don’t know what Singularity will bring.

There are a lot of intelligent conversations to be had before this day comes. Considering this very well might be the most important innovation earth will ever see.

I realize Singularity is a very heavy concept and about as crazy sounding as digital drugs. But try not to dwell on it too much.

Mental baggage weighs down the spirit

On a daily basis, we walk around with clouded minds, or mental baggage as I like to call it. As you are taking a shower, you think about what to eat for breakfast. As you are eating breakfast, you think about the traffic you’ll encounter on your way to work.

You carry this mental baggage throughout the entire day. By the time you get home in the evening, your mind is exhausted. That’s because we carry mental baggage with us wherever we go.

There’s an old Zen story that illustrates this point:

Two monks were traveling together in a heavy downpour when they came upon a beautiful woman in a silk kimono who was having trouble crossing a muddy intersection. “Come on,” said the first monk to the woman, and he carried her in his arms to a dry spot. The second monk didn’t say anything until much later. Then he couldn’t contain himself anymore. “We monks don’t go near females,” he said. “Why did you do that?”

“I left the woman back there,” the first monk replied. “Are you still carrying her?”

Mental baggage only clouds us from experiencing what’s happening now. It causes unwanted negative emotions to linger longer than they are welcome. By thinking of the past or the future, you dilute the present.

Check your mental baggage at the gate and don’t even think about bringing a carry-on.

The present moment is for gaining knowledge – immersing yourself in the task at hand. That’s why I created Quick Theories – a weekly newsletter exploring modern technology and its possible effects on your future – to help you understand and adopt technology in your own creative way.

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Digital Drugs, Binaural Beats, and The Future of Medicine

The war on drugs is becoming digital and I’m not talking about online head shops, like Billowby. Literally, our relationship with the future of drugs is shifting toward digital drugs as a means for medication and recreation. Binaural beats are just the tip of the iceberg. 

Believe it or not, you’ve already consumed the gateway drug that’ll lead to much “harder” digital drugs down the road. How do I know?

Technology, The Gateway to Digital Drugs

You have a physiological dependence on technology. Don’t believe me? Go to the grocery store, leave your phone at home, and ask yourself how you felt while you were away from it. You probably felt like a coffee-drinker that hasn’t had their morning cup yet or a someone who can’t find their bottle of heartburn medication after eating three hot dogs. Not good, right?!

That’s because technology acts just like drugs. Every time you log onto Facebook your brain releases dopamine causing you to feel rewarded. In the same way, when you use only your email to reach a new client or customer, you are positively reinforced to continue using a technology-assisted method of business.

“But, I don’t feel like an addict.” Well, of course. Haven’t you ever seen the show intervention? The addict always denies their problem, which is why the first step in Alcoholics Anonymous is Acceptance.

Is technology an entirely bad drug? No. Is it entirely good? Not for me to decide. But, what I can tell you is that your phone, laptop, and TV screen are merely a gateway drug to the wide world of digital drugs coming to a device near you.

The Brown Noise and Binaural Beats

For millennia, wise men have pondered the ability to reach someone’s internal functions via external methods.

For instance, ancient practitioners of QiGong believe breathing slender, silent, and deep breaths is a way to reach the lower dan tian – an area just below the navel, capable of nourishing the body with good energy to sustain a long, healthy life.

Also, creators of South Park (the TV show), believe there’s a specific music note (The Brown Noise) one can play that will force any innocent listener to bake a batch of brownies in their pants. In other words, go poop. While the Mythbusters took a deep dive to debunk this myth, it hasn’t stopped others from being inspired.

Today, there is a wide range of audio drugs on the market called binaural beats. That’s right, music that messes you up. The early binaural beats mimicked the effects of physical drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, methamphetamine, etc… While they’ve been widely claimed as ineffective, it hasn’t stopped legislatures from considering criminalizing this form of digital drugs.

Realistically, we’ll see these binaural beats acting in a therapeutic way before they begin getting people “high”. For instance, there’s a fad sweeping the nation for meditation apps such as Sway, which use soothing music to relieve stress and get in tune with “The Now”.

For digital drugs, ears aren’t the only channel for treatment.

Gotta see it to believe it

Have you ever given a presentation, looked out at the audience of faces, and felt your heart sprint with anxiety? How about looked out at the setting sun and felt all of your stress melt away with the day?

We see, therefore we feel. Therefore, our surrounding limit our feelings.

But, that is changing with virtual reality. Naturally, VR is a tool to immerse one into entirely new worlds from one’s own. The initial speculators think that it’ll be used to place people inside of their favorite video games, but it can be so much more.

Imagine using a VR world to treat someone with depression by transporting them to some of their most memorized places, helping them see the bright side of things again. Or, imagine taking the audio meditation apps one step further, and transporting someone to a Buddhist temple in the Shaolin mountains to meditate alongside the originators.

Currently, researchers at Barcelona University are even using VR to help people cope with one unavoidable event: death. By putting the viewer in a near-death experience, the experiment has shown to lessen people’s fear of death.

It gets even better

In the grand scheme of things, binaural beats and VR are merely the Ibuprofen and Claritin of digital drugs. They serve an important purpose but are still only over-the-counter drugs in comparison to the possibilities of digital drugs.

In our current state of medicine, a body’s reaction limits the effectiveness of drugs. For that reason, most medication has a long list of side-effects that encompass just about everything that can possibly go wrong.

But, digital drugs preview the world where we talk directly to our biological problems. They are a means for communicating with the brain in its own language, working directly with the control center of the body to treat our diseases and dysfunctions.

Digital drugs shouldn’t be feared, but rather looked at for their vast possibilities in healthcare (especially once we become cyborgs).

Laugh at you fears

Often times we fear things because we just don’t know them. Honestly, I was scared to leave home and go to college. But, I quickly learned once I arrived at school that it would be an amazing experience.

Taking a moment to learn about your fears gives you an opportunity to uncover the truth behind the fear.

I’ll admit, the future of technology can be quite frightening, but once you learn more about it, you’ll probably just laugh at its absurdity.

Honestly, I just wrote an entire article on digital drugs…and you read it! Laugh at that. Think what Einstein would’ve said after hearing about digital drugs. He’d probably be thrilled.

They say laughter is the best form of medicine. Those that can prescribe laughter to themselves on demand will never get sick.

Laugh at your fears and then learn more about them. They may become your strength.

While I’ve never personally been afraid of the future of technology, I understand how it can be extremely frightening to others. That’s why I created Quick Theories – a weekly newsletter exploring modern technology and its effects on your future – to help you understand and adopt technology in your own creative way.

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ISPs, Like Comcast, Pass A Bill to Sell Your Digital Privacy

The same companies that brought you the internet (ISPs) now want to sell your information and squander any remaining digital privacy you have.

Today, Congress passed a bill to repeal the FCC’s 2016 broadband privacy rules giving consumers the power to choose how their ISPs (Internet Service Providers) use and share their personal data – financial and health information, Social Security numbers, web browsing, and application usage history.

Now, ISPs like Comcast, AT&T, and Charter are free to sell your personal information to the highest bidder without your permission. Also, the bill ensures that the FCC cannot adopt “substantially similar” rules. Everyone expects the president to sign this bill, eliminating the nation’s strongest privacy protections and ensuring they cannot be revived.

Hasta La Vista, Digital Privacy

I can imagine ISPs feel like a child forced to watch others eat cake on their birthday…and not getting a slice themselves.

Google and Facebook have been raking in so much ad revenue through their data analytics, they don’t even know how to spend it (hence, why Google now has an initiative aimed at ending mortality). Meanwhile, Comcast, AT&T, and Charter are confined to bundling home, phone, and the internet to make a few bucks here and there.

So, I can understand why they lobbied for this repeal.

On the other hand, it just doesn’t seem right. If you don’t like Google invading your digital privacy, then you can just switch search engines. No big deal. If you don’t like your ISP invading your digital privacy, you can’t switch so easily.

Switching your internet service provider is like changing your last name – it’s time-consuming and frowned upon. Often times, you are hit with a big fee and have to wait weeks for a worker to “squeeze you into their schedule” and hook up your internet.

Clearly, ISPs have the upper hand on us and they are gladly going to take advantage of it.

Background Checks Just Got Personal

The companies I see benefitting from buying this data are employers and insurance companies for one reason: to judge you.

Employers in the process of hiring could inspect an applicant’s daily, online routine. What sites do they visit from 9-5? Do they watch a lot of Netflix? Are they productive? Your normal, online activity is a great indicator of what type of person you are.

Insurance companies could add this data to the process of assessing life insurance policies. Is this person base-jumping on a daily basis, like in Along Came Polly? Are they frequently booking exotic trips on Airbnb? Feeling cheated by outrageous deductibles would be a thing of the past. Insurers could point out that you are attached to your computer screen all day (usage history) and are frequently sick (always on WebMD).

Yo ISPs, Don’t Bite the Hand That Feeds You

This reminds me of a situation that is taking place now in the world of basketball. Last year, three brothers, known as the Ball Brothers, became a sports phenomenon, after all starting on the same high school team and blowing teams out of the water with their flashy style…seriously, one of them scored 92 points in a single game.

Their father is capitalizing on all the attention. He’s been on ESPN telling the world how he wants a billion dollar deal for all three, his oldest son is better than Stephen Curry, and that he himself can beat Michael Jordan one-on-one.

Two of them haven’t even proved they can compete at the college level yet. But, this hasn’t stopped the greed of their father. In his own words, “We gonna get a billion dollars. UCLA’s exploiting my son. Why not me?”

Honestly, I think Comcast, AT&T, and Charter are all affected by this greed and sense of entitlement. They raised us all and don’t want to continue watching someone else profit off of us.

Now, they are beginning to nip at our hands. We (the people) feed these ISPs with money. Now they are turning around and selling us out?! If that’s not biting the hand that feeds you, then I don’t know what is.

Celebrate Your Supporters

Never take for granted, the support you get from others. Surrounding yourself with people that believe in you is step 1, but step 0 is cherishing your supporters. Showing your appreciation towards them is how the relationship becomes a two-way street.

There’s no right or wrong way to show your appreciation. The only stipulation is that it must come from a genuine place.

Take the time to celebrate those that stick with you.

For those of you that are reading Quick Theories for the first time, thanks for taking the time to learn and I hope you enjoyed this article. For those of you that are regular Quick Theories readers, you rock! Seriously, you motivate me to continue getting better (and I promise there are big things coming).

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